66. Malik S#, Pradeep SP#, Kumar V, Xiao Y, Deng Y, Fan R, Vasquez JC, Singh V, Bahal R. “Antitumor efficacy of sequence-specific DNA-targeted gamma PNA-based c-Myc inhibitor’‘ . Cell Reports Medicine, 2024. #authors contributed equally.

65. Gogate A, Belcourt J, Shah M, Wang A, Frankel A, Kolmel H, Chalon M, Stephen P, Kolli A, Tawfik S, Jin J, Bahal R, Rasmussen T, Manautou J, and Zhong X.Targeting the Liver with Nucleic Acid Therapeutics for the Treatment of Systemic Diseases of Liver Origin.” Pharmacological Reviews, 2024.


64. Oyaghire SN, Quijano E, Perera JDR, Mandl HK, Saltzman WM, Bahal R, Glazer PM. DNA Recognition and Induced Genome Modification by a Hydroxymethyl-γ Tail-Clamp Peptide Nucleic Acid” . Cell Reports Physical Sciences, 2023.

63. Dhuri K, Duran T, Chaudhuri B, Slack FJ, Vikram A, Glazer PM, Bahal R. “Head to Head comparison of in vitro and in vivo efficacy of pHLIP conjugated anti seed gamma Peptide Nucleic Acids“. Cell Reports Physical Sciences, 2023.

62. Gaddam RR, Amalkar V, Sali VK, Nakuluri K, Jacobs JS, Kim YR, Li Q, Bahal R, Irani K, Vikram A. Role of miR-204 in segmental cardiac effects of phenylephrine and pressure overload. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 2023.

61. Kasina V, Wahane A, Liu CH, Yang L, Nieh MP, Slack FJ, Bahal R. “Next-generation poly-L-histidine formulations for miRNA mimic delivery. Molecular Therapy Methods & Clinical Development, 2023.

60. Pradeep SP, Malik S, Slack FJ*, Bahal R*. “Unlocking the potential of chemically modified peptide nucleic acids for RNA-based therapeutics“. RNA, 2023. *Co-corresponding authors.

59. Kumar V, Wahane A, Gupta A, Manautou JE, Bahal R. Multivalent Lactobionic acid and N-Acetylgalactosamine-conjugated Peptide Nucleic Acids for Efficient in vivo Targeting of Hepatocytes“. Advanced Healthcare Materials2023.

58. Wang Y#, Malik S#, Suh HW, Xiao Y, Deng Y, Fan R, Huttner A, Bindra RS, Singh V, Saltzman WM*, Bahal R*. Anti-seed PNAs targeting multiple oncomiRs for brain tumor therapy“. Science Advances2022. #Both authors contributed equally, *co-corresponding senior authors.

57. Ahangari F, Price NL, Malik S, Chioccioli M, Bärnthaler T, Adams TS, Kim J, Pradeep SP, Ding S, Cosme Jr C, Rose K, McDonough J, Aurelien N, Ibarra G, Omote N, Schupp JC, DeIuliis G, Villalba JA, Sharma L, Ryu C, Dela Cruz C, Liu X, Prasse A, Rosas I, Bahal R, Fernandez-Hernando C, Kaminski N. “microRNA-33 deficiency in macrophages enhances autophagy, improves mitochondrial homeostasis, and protects against lung fibrosis“. JCI Insight, 2023.


56. Putman R, Ricciardi AS, Carufe K, Quijano E, Bahal R, Glazer PM, Saltzman MW. “Nanoparticle-mediated genome editing in single-cell embryos via peptide nucleic acids“. Bioengineering & Translational Medicine, 2022.

55. Wu H, Wahane A, Alhamadani F, Zhang K, Parikh R, Lee S, McCabe EM, Rasmussen TP, Bahal R, Zhong X, Manautou JE. Nephrotoxicity of Antisense Oligonucleotide Drugs“. Current Opinion in Toxicology, 2022.

54. Emehiser RG,  Dhuri K,  Shepard C,  Karmakar S,  Bahal R, Hrdlicka PJ. Serine-γPNA, Invader probes and chimeras thereof: Three probe chemistries enabling sequence-unrestricted recognition of double-stranded DNA“. Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry, 2022.

53. Liu A, Zhao J, Shah M, Migliorati J, Tawfik S, Bahal R, Rasmussen T, Manautou J, Zhong X. “Nedosiran, a Candidate siRNA Drug for the Treatment of Primary Hyperoxaluria: Design, Development, and Clinical Studies“. ACS Pharmacology & Translational Science, 2022. 

52. Dhuri K, Pradeep SP, Shi J, Anastasiadou E, Slack FJ, Gupta A, Zhong X, Bahal R. “Simultaneous targeting of multiple oncomiRs with phosphorothioate or PNA-based anti-miRs in lymphoma cell lines“. Pharmaceutical Research, 2022.

51. Zhang X, Rotllan N, CanfránDuque A, Sun J, Toczek J, Moshnikova A, Malik S, Price NL, Araldi E, Zhong W, Sadeghi MM, Andreev OA, Bahal R, Reshetnyak YK, Suárez Y, Fernández-Hernando C. “Targeted Suppression of miRNA-33 Using pHLIP Improves Atherosclerosis Regression“. Circulation Research, 2022.

50. Edalatian Zakeri S#, Pradeep SP#, Kasina V#, Laddha AP, Manautou JE, Bahal R. “Casimersen for the treatment of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy“. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences, 2022. #authors contributed equally.

49. Jin Y, Edalatian Zakeri S, Bahal R, Wiemer AJ.New Technologies Bloom Together for Bettering Cancer Drug Conjugates“. Pharmacological Reviews, 2022.

48. Kasina V, Mownn RJ, Bahal R, Sartor GC. Nanoparticle delivery systems for substance use disorder.Neuropsychopharmacology, 2022.

47. Migliorati J, Liu S, Liu A, Gogate A, Nair S, Bahal R, Rasmussen T, Manautou J, Zhong X.Absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of FDA-approved antisense oligonucleotide drugs.” Drug Metabolism and Disposition, 2022.

46. Alhamadani F, Zhang K, Parikh R, Wu H, Rasmussen T, Bahal R, Zhong X, Manautou J. Adverse Drug Reactions and Toxicity of the FDA-approved Antisense Oligonucleotide Drugs.” Drug Metabolism and Disposition, 2022.

45. Dhuri K#, Gaddam R#, Kim YR, Jacobs J, Kumar V, Li Q, Irani K, Bahal R*, Vikram A*. γ peptide nucleic acid-based miR-122 inhibition rescues vascular endothelial dysfunction in mice fed a high-fat diet. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 2022. #Both authors contributed equally, *co-corresponding senior authors.


44. Malik S, Kumar V, Liu CH, Shih KC, Krueger S, Nieh MP, Bahal R. “Head on Comparison of Self- and Nano-Assemblies of Gamma Peptide Nucleic Acid Amphiphiles.Advanced Functional Materials, 2021.

43. Dhuri K, Gaddam RR, Vikram A, Slack FJ, Bahal R.Therapeutic potential of chemically modified, synthetic, triplex peptide nucleic acid-based oncomiR inhibitors for cancer therapy.Cancer Research, 2021.

42. Wahane A*,  Malik S*, Shih KC, Gaddam RR, Chen C, Liu Y, Nieh MP, Vikram A, Bahal R.Dual-modality poly-L-histidine nanoparticles to deliver peptide nucleic acids and paclitaxel for in vivo cancer therapy.ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 2021. *Both authors contributed equally.

41. Malik S,  Saltzman WM, Bahal R.Extracellular Vesicles Mediated Exocytosis of Antisense Peptide Nucleic Acids.Molecular therapy-Nucleic Acids, 2021.

40. Dhuri K, Vyas R, Blumenfeld L, Verma R, Bahal R. “Nanoparticle delivered anti-miR-141-3p for stroke therapy.Cells, 2021.

39. Zhang M, Bahal R, Rasmussen T, Manautou J, Zhong X. “The growth of siRNA-based therapeutics: Updated clinical studies.Biochemical Pharmacology, 2021.


38. Malik S, Slack FJ, Bahal R. “Formulation of PLGA nanoparticles containing short cationic peptide nucleic acids.MethodsX, 2020.

37. Malik S, Lim J, Slack FJ, Braddock DT, Bahal R. “Next-generation miRNA inhibition using short anti-seed PNAs encapsulated in PLGA nanoparticles.” Journal of Controlled Release, 2020

36. Malik S, Gupta A, Zhong X, Rasmussen T, Manautou J, Bahal R. “Emerging Therapeutic Modalities against COVID-19Pharmaceuticals, 2020.

35. Supriya S, Bahal R, Rasmussen T. “Evidence that miR-152-3p is a positive regulator of SETDB1-mediated H3K9 histone methylation and serves as a toggle between histone and DNA methylation.Experimental Cell Research, 2020.

34. Dhuri K, Bechtold C, Quijano E, Pham H, Gupta A , Vikram A, Bahal R. “Antisense Oligonucleotides: An Emerging area in Drug Discovery and Development.” Journal of Clinical Medicine, 2020.

33. Wahane A,  Waghmode A, Kapphahn A, Dhuri K, Gupta A, Bahal R. “Role of Lipid-Based and Polymer-Based Non-Viral Vectors in Nucleic Acid Delivery for Next-Generation Gene Therapy.Molecules, 2020.

32. Gaddam R, Veronica P, Kim YR, Gabani M, Jacobs J, Dhuri K, Kumar S, Kassan M, Li Q, Bahal R, Roghair R, Irani K, Vikram A. “Microbiota-governed microRNA-204 impairs endothelial function and blood pressure decline during inactivity in db/db mice.Nature Scientific Reports, 2020.

31. Kaplan A, Pham H, Liu Y, Oyaghire S, Bahal R, Engelman D, Glazer P. “Tumor-selective targeting of Ku80 for radiosensitization using a pH-sensitive peptide-PNA conjugate.” Molecular Cancer Research, 2020. 

30. Chen L, Wang P, Bahal R, Manautou JE, Zhong X-b. “Ontogenic mRNA expression of RNA modification writers, erasers, and readers in mouse liver.” PLoS ONE, 2020. 

29. Svoronos AA, Bahal R, Pereira MC, Barrera FN, Deacon JC, Bosenberg M, DiMaio D, Glazer PM, and Engelman DM. “Tumor-Targeted, Cytoplasmic Delivery of Large, Polar Molecules using a pH-Low Insertion Peptide.” Molecular Pharmaceutics, 2020.


28. Sahraei M, Chaube B,  Liu Y, Sun J, Kaplan A, Price NL, Ding W, Oyaghire S, García-Milian R, Mehta S, Reshetnyak YK, Bahal R, Fiorina P, Glazer PM, Rimm DL, Fernández-Hernando C, and Suárez Y. Suppressing miR-21 activity in tumor-associated macrophages promotes an antitumor immune response”. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 2019.

27. Price NL, Miguel V, Ding W, Singh AK, Malik S, Rotllan N, Moshnikova A, Toczek J, Zeiss C, Sadeghi MM, Arias N, Baldán A, Andreev OA, Rodríguez-Puyol D, Bahal R, Reshetnyak YK, Suárez Y, Fernández-Hernando C, and Lamas S. “Genetic deficiency or pharmacological inhibition of miR-33 protects from kidney fibrosis.” JCI Insight, 2019.

26. Malik S*, Rad AT*, Yang L, Oberoi-Khanuja TK, Nieh MP, Bahal R. “Universal Discoidal Nano Platform for Intracellular Delivery of PNAs.” Nanoscale,2019. (*Both authors contributed equally)

25. Malik S, Bahal R. “Investigation of PLGA nanoparticles in conjunction with nuclear localization sequence for enhanced delivery of antimiR phosphorothioates in cancer cells in vitro.” Journal of Nanobiotechnology,2019.

24. Seo Y-E, Suh H-W, Bahal R, Josowitz A, Zhang J, Song E, Cui J, Noorbakhsh S, Jackson C, Bu T, Piotrowski-Daspit A, Bindra R, Saltzman WM. “Nanoparticle-mediated intratumoral inhibition of miR-21 for improved survival in glioblastoma.” Biomaterials,2019.

23. Malik S, Asmara B, Moscato Z, Mukker JK, Bahal R. “Advances in Nanoparticle-based Delivery of Next Generation Peptide Nucleic Acids”. Current Pharmaceutical Design, 2019.


22. Ricciardi AS, Bahal R, Farrelly JS, Quijano E, Bianchi AH, Luks VL, Putman R, López-Giráldez F, Coşkun S, Song E, Liu Y, Hsieh WC, Ly DH, Stitelman DH, Glazer PM, Saltzman WM. In utero nanoparticle delivery for site-specific genome editing. Nature Communications, 2018.

21. Malik S, Oyaghire S, Bahal R. “Applications of PNA-laden nanoparticles for hematological disorders”. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, 2018.

20. Bahal R, Manna A, Hsieh WC, Thadke SA, Sureshkumar G, Ly DH. “RNA-Templated Concatenation of Triplet Nucleic Acid Probe” Chembiochem, 2018.

19. Bahal R*, Hsieh WC*, Thadke S, Bhatt K, Sobczak K, Thornton CA, Ly DH. “Design of ‘Mini’ Nucleic Acid Probe for Cooperative Binding of RNA-Repeated Transcript Associated with Myotonic Dystrophy Type 1”. Biochemistry, 2018. (*Both authors contributed equally)


18. Gupta A, Quijano E, Liu Y, Bahal R, Scanlon SE, Song E, Hsieh WC, Braddock DE, Ly DH, Saltzman WM, Glazer PM. Anti-tumor activity of miniPEG-γ modified PNAs to inhibit microRNA-210 for cancer therapy. Molecular Therapy Nucleic Acids, 2017.

17. Quijano E, Bahal R, Ricciardi A, Saltzman WM, Glazer PM “Therapeutic Peptide Nucleic Acids: Principles, Limitations, and OpportunitiesYale Journal of Biology and Medicine, 2017.


16. Bahal R, McNeer NA, Quijano E, L Yanfeng, Sulkowski P, Bhunia DC, Manna A, Greiner DL, Brehm MA, Cheng CJ, -Giráldez FL, Beloor J, Krause DS, Kumar P, Gallagher PG, Braddock DT, Saltzman WM, Ly DH, Glazer PM. In vivo correction of anemia in thalassemic mice by gPNA-mediated gene editing with stem cell factor treatment and nanoparticle deliveryNature Communications, 2016.
Research featured in the news (5 out of 29 news outlets): Mentioned in Faculty of 1000,The Washington Post, New gene-editing trick discovered just in time for J-Lo’s “CRISPR” TV series. 2016. Science Daily, Scientists edit gene mutations in inherited form of anemia. 2016. Bioscience Technology. Gene-editing Technology Cures Genetic Blood Disorder in Mice. 2016 ZME Science, Gene-editing technology successfully cures genetic disorder in mice – and it’s not CRISPR 2016.

15. Bahal R, Gupta A, Glazer PM, Saltzman WM. Polymer nanoparticles for delivery of Peptide Nucleic Acids (PNA). Journal of Controlled Release, 2016.


14. McNeer NA, Anandalingam K, Fields RJ, Caputo C, Kopic S, Gupta A, Quijano E, Polikoff L, Kong Y, Bahal R, Geibel JP, Glazer PM, Saltzman WM, Egan ME. Correction of F508del CFTR in airway epithelium using nanoparticles delivering triplex-forming PNAs. Nature Communications, 2015.
Research featured in the news: Yale News, Yale scientists use gene editing to correct mutation in cystic fibrosis. 2015. Lung disease news, Yale Researchers Effectively Correct Cystic Fibrosis Gene Mutation in Mice. 2015, Fierce biotech research, Yale collaborators use gene editing tech to fix a cystic fibrosis mutation. 2015. Cystic fibrosis news today, New strategies could correct genetic mutation responsible for cystic fibrosis, 2015.

13. Cheng CJ, Bahal R, Babar IA, Pincus Z, Barrera F, Liu C, Svoronos A, Braddock DT, Glazer PM, Engelman DM, Saltzman WM, Slack FJ. MicroRNA silencing for cancer therapy targeted to the tumor microenvironment. Nature, 2015.
Research featured in the news: Yale News, Yale Researchers Develop Method to Attack Cancer at Its Source, Bill Hathaway, 2014. Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, microRNA Silencing Provides a Successful New Model for Cancer Therapeutics. 2014. Science Newsline. Team devises ingenious method to attack cancer at its genetic source. 2014. Recommended article in Faculty of 1000 (F1000) by Drs. Gabriele Varani, Yu Chen, K Mark Ansel.

12. Bahal R, Gupta A, Glazer PM. Precise genome modification using triplex forming oligonucleotide PNAs. In: Genome Editing: Next Step in Gene Therapy, 2015 (Editor, Dr. Mathew Hirsch, University of North Carolina).


11. Bahal R, Quijano E, McNeer NA, Liu Y, Bhunia DC, Giráldez FL, Fields RJ, Saltzman WM, Ly DH, Glazer PM. Single-stranded γPNAs for in vivo site-specific genome editing via Watson-Crick recognition. Current Gene Therapy, 2014.

10. Delgado E, Bahal R, Yang J, Lee JM, Ly DH, Monga SPS. β-Catenin knockdown in liver tumor cells by a cell permeable gamma guanidine-based peptide nucleic acid. Current Cancer Drug Targets, 2014.

9. Fields RJ, Quijano E, McNeer NA, Caputo C, Bahal R, Anandalingam K, Egan ME, Glazer PM, Saltzman WM. Modified Poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles for enhanced cellular uptake and gene editing in the lung. Advanced Health Care Materials, 2014.

8. Manna A, Rapireddy S, Bahal R, Ly DH. MiniPEG-gPNA. PNA Protocol Methods Molecular Biology. 2014.


7. Bahal R, McNeer NA, Ly DH, Saltzman WM, Glazer PM. Nanoparticles for delivery of antisense γPNA oligomers targeting CCR5. Artificial DNA PNA XNA, 2013.


6. Bahal R, Sahu B, Rapireddy S, Lee CM, Ly DH. Sequence-unrestricted, Watson-Crick recognition of double helical B-DNA by (R) miniPEG-gamma PNAChembiochem, 2012.

5. Thomas SM, Sahu B, Rapireddy S, Bahal R, Wheeler SE, Procopio EM, Kim J, Joyce SC, Contrucci S, Wang Y, Chiosea SI, Lathrop KL, Watkins S, Grandis JR, Armitage BA, Ly DH. Antitumor effects of EGFR antisense guanidine-based peptide nucleic acids in cancer models. ACS Chemical Biology, 2012.
Research featured in the news: The Tartan online, Researchers create GPNAs to suppress tumor growth, 2012.


1. He G, Rapireddy S, Bahal R, Sahu B, Ly DH. Strand invasion of extended, mixed sequence B-DNA by gammaPNAs. Journal of American Chemical Society, 2009.

Book Chapters

  1. Bahal R, Gupta A, Saltzman WM, Glazer PM. Nanoparticle-mediated delivery of peptide nucleic acids. Nanobiomedicine, M/s Stadium Press LLC, USA. 2014. 6, 223-245.
  2. Popli H, Bahal R, Gupta A. Advancement in parenteral drug delivery: Vital role of nanoparticulate systems. Nanobiomedicine, M/s Studium Press LLC, USA, 2014, 6, 382-409.
  3. Khanna S, Bahal R, Bharatam PV. 2006. In silico studies on PPAR gamma agonistic heterocyclic systems. In: Topics in Heterocyclic Chemistry, 2006, 3, 149-80.